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Descendants of Prince Duplex

Selected Biosketches, Obituaries and Notes

Prince DUPLEX1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 was born in Feb 1754 in Connecticut,8 died on 29 Oct 1825 in Danby, NY8 at age 71, and was buried in 1825 in Danby Presbyterian Cemetery.8,9


Early years: Born a slave in mid-eighteenth century Colonial America, Prince Duplex (1754 - 1825) was raised in the small towns of costal and central Connecticut still linked by Puritan traditions of the original New Haven Colony. His mother served the household of Rev. Benjamin Chapman, a Princeton-educated clergyman and pastor of the Southington Congregational Church. Remembrances of Prince's early life were recalled by the Rev. Heman Timlow (Ecclesiastical and Other Sketches of Southington, Conn., 1875) who noted that "those now living remember Prince and Peter Duplex whose mother was Mr. Chapman's cook." Of this Duplex family, only Prince's life can be traced into the 19th century.

Prince Duplex of Southington is likely the child Prince reported in the baptismal record of the First Congregational Church of Derby, CT, the home township of Rev. Chapman's wife, Abigail, and her parents, Samuel and Abigail (Gunn) Riggs. In the Derby Congregational Church records, Rev. Daniel Humphreys recorded:

July 18, 1756.  Also was baptized Prince, the negro servant child of Samuel Riggs and Abigail, his wife - Town Records of Derby, Connecticut.232

In that same year of 1756 in Derby, the Riggs' daughter, Abigail, married Rev. Chapman and went with him to Southington where he began his service in the pulpit. When Samuel Riggs died fourteen years later in 1770, a probate estate inventory listed his substantial land and chattel holdings, including a "negro boy Prince £50." Abigail, the oldest of three surviving daughters, inherited her share of the estate.233 It seems probable that through this patrimony, Prince was bound to the service of Rev. Chapman.

Samuel Riggs also bequeathed two adult slaves - "Peter" and "Hannah" - to his wife. Whether they were related to Prince or joined him in Southington is not known.

Revolutionary War: On May 18th, 1777, Prince Duplex mustered into the Continental Army as a "free man of color," a status probably granted upon condition of service in the Revolutionary War. He served an initial three-year term from 1777 to 1780, engaging in battles at Mud Island, Germantown and Monmouth. He wintered with George Washington's Continental Army at Valley Forge in 1777-78. In 1782, he reenlisted and served until the War's end in 1783 as a guard with Regiments at Horseneck and Stamford, Connecticut.

Marriage and family in Wolcott, CT: On February 20th, 1782, Prince and Lement Parker were married by Reverend Alexander Gillett, pastor of the Congregational Church in Wolcott, CT, then a rural community near Southington in the low-lying hills west of the Connecticut River valley. By one account, the couple lived on "Wolcott Mountain, on the old road to Wolcott, about a quarter of mile above the grave-yard." A household of five "other free persons" headed by "Prince Duplax" was enumerated in the first Federal Census of 1790 of Connecticut. In 1796, Wolcott separated from Southington as an independently incorporated town. By 1804, Prince's name appeared on Wolcott's tax list of freemen as owner of about two and one-half acres of hillside farm property.

Prince and Lement raised seven children who survived into their adult years. Two other children died in infancy (recorded in Wolcott and Southington church records) and a presumed daughter or granddaughter, Dinah Duplex, died in New Haven in 1821 at age 16.

Duplex children in New Haven: The Duplex children were educated, probably at home and in church, and became involved in community religious and social affairs. Several Duplex children joined the "Center Church on the Green" in New Haven, the first Congregational Church established by Puritan settlers in 1683. Restricted to seats in the church balcony, the Duplexes and other black congregants left to establish the first African American church of New Haven. Prince Duplex Jr., the middle son in the Duplex family, was a leader in the African Ecclesiastical Society, the forerunner of the new church. Established in 1824, the Society evolved into the Temple Street Church, and later the Dixwell Avenue Congregational Church. Prince Jr. was the church's first deacon and clerk. In its formative years, the newly organized congregation was lead by the vigorous religious vision of a young abolitionist and Yale divinity student, Simeon S. Jocelyn.

Move to Danby, NY: About 1816, as several of the Duplex children devoted their energies to spiritual uplift and civic work in New Haven's black community, Prince and Lement left Wolcott to join the early pioneer families of Danby, New York, a small village ten miles south of Ithaca and Lake Cayuga. Prince's oldest son George and daughters Arsena and Craty also moved to New York, while Prince Jr. and daughters Sylvia and Vashti remained in New Haven.

In 1819, the Department of War approved Prince's application for Revolutionary War pension benefits as provided for by an 1818 Act of Congress. He received a monthly pension of eight dollars. After his death, the entitlement passed to his wife. At the time of his pension application, he listed personal assets that included "2 drawing knives, 2 wooden plates, 1 axe and hoe, 2 iron teaspoons, 4 jack knives and 1 kettle" with a total value of $4.50. He also listed debts exceeding his assets, but within a few years of receiving his pension allotment, he was able to secure land and establish a forty-five acre farm to support the family.

The Duplex farm in Danby was located a few miles west of the village center. Danby was a stage coach stopover along the Owego-Ithaca Turnpike, an important thoroughfare connecting the Finger Lakes region of New York with south-central New York. The Turnpike became one of the many routes of the Underground Railroad, providing access to Canada for slaves escaping from the South and passing through Pennsylvania and New York.

Final years: Prince Duplex died in 1825 at the age of 71, leaving the farm to his son George. His wife survived him by more than two decades and died in 1847 at the age of 82. Prince and Lement were buried in the Danby Presbyterian Cemetery. The family legacy would grow considerably in the generations that followed as his sons and daughters rose to important positions in the professions and the general affairs of the growing nation.

Descendants: Among the descendants of Prince Duplex and Lement Parker are several noteworthy Americans:

His daughter, Vashti Duplex Creed, was the first African American teacher of New Haven, Conn. Her brother, Prince Duplex, Jr., was cofounder of New Haven's first African American church.

His grandson, Cortlandt Van Rensselaer Creed, M.D., Yale 1857, was the first African American graduate of any department of Yale University.

Another grandson, Edward Parker Duplex, became a successful businessman, political leader among California's Gold Rush pioneers, and mayor of Wheatland, California. He was said to be the first African American elected mayor west of the Mississippi.

A 2nd great grandson, George Duplex Creed, Jr., served in World War I with the Harlem Hellfighters, the much decorated 367th Regiment of the U.S. Army and the first African American regiment to deploy to France during the Great War.

Prince's 3rd great grandson, Leon Vincent Creed, fought in Europe during World War II as a member of the legendary Tuskegee Airmen, the first U.S. African American fighter pilots of the 99th Pursuit Squadron.

A 3rd great granddaughter, Jacqueline Creed Archer, was a noted civil rights activist in Plattsburgh, New York and recipient of an award citation from New York Governor Mario Cuomo as an "African American of Distinction."

Another 3rd great grandson, Andrew Irving Rematore, obtained his Ph.D. from Stanford University and was a Professor of Linguistics, Spanish, and Latin-American Literature at the University of Santa Clara in California.

Two 5th grandchildren are the second and third Duplex descendants to become medical physicians, one hundred and fifty years after the first, Dr. Cortlandt Van Rensselaer Creed.

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Prince DUPLEX Jr.8,35 was born about 1796 in Wolcott, CT,8 died on 18 Sep 1832 in New Haven, CT8,28,36,37 about age 36, and was buried in Sep 1832 in Grove Street Cemetery, New Haven, CT.8,28 The cause of his death was febris.36


Prince Duplex, Jr., the middle son of Prince and Lement Duplex, was born in 1796 in Wolcott, CT. He claimed to be a descendant of an African prince. As a young man he was employed by a Meriden businessman whose daughter later wrote, "Of his record any man might be proud. It was said of him in the four years of his stay he never told or even acted a falsehood. He was diligent, thoughtful and always respectful. 'He was rightly named Prince; his character was noble' . . . If any of his descendants are living they may well be proud of their ancestor."

Prince Jr. and his sisters were deeply involved in efforts to elevate the status of blacks in New Haven through religious and educational instruction. He was among the small group of Yale and New Haven community leaders, including the young abolitionist, Simeon S. Jocelyn, who established the African United Ecclesiastical Society in the 1820's. The Society's work lead to the organization of New Haven's "African Church," also known as the Temple Street Church and later, the Dixwell Avenue Congregational Church. Prince Jr. was the deacon and clerk of this first black Congregational Church in the United States.

Prince Jr. married Adaline F. Francis in 1825 and purchased a home on Academy Stret facing New Haven's Wooster Square. Prince worked as a steward on the New Haven Steamship Line which provided water access across Long Island Sound to New York City. Adaline bore two sons, Edward Parker and Elisha, and a daughter, Adeline Frances. The sons received their formal education under the tutelage of George Beckwith, publisher of the widely distributed Beckwith's Almanac. They apprenticed to local barbers and established their own shop, first in the State Building across from the New Haven Green and later in Fair Haven on Exchange Street.

Prince Jr. died in 1832. In the 1850's, his wife and children traveled west following the path of the Gold Rush to northern California. The Duplex family established a hair dressing and shaving salon business in Marysville, Yuba County, California. Edward became a successful politician, serving as Mayor of Wheatland, California. He is believed to be the first elected African American mayor west of the Mississippi.8,57

He was a cofounder of the African United Ecclesiastical Society.8,58,59

The African United Ecclesiastical Society was a forerunner of the Temple Street Church, the first African American church of New Haven. The Society leadership advertised the following appeal in the Religious Intelligencer requesting support from New Haven citizens to complete the purchase and renovation of the Temple Street Church building.

We, the subscribers, the Committee of the African United Ecclesiastical Society, in New-Haven, beg leave respectfully to state to the citizens of New-Haven, that the Society which we represent is composed of the descendants of Africans, of different denominations of this city; that it was formed on the 21st Oct. 1824, 'for improving the morals, promoting the piety, and increasing the religious knowledge of that part of the population;' that, in connexion with their minister, clergymen of the different denominations of this city, and the licentiates of the [Yale] Theological Seminary, have statedly and occasionally aided in the supply of their pulpit; that it has purchased as a place of worship the house formerly used for that purpose by the Methodist Society of this city. Many of the citizens have generously aided the society, but the debt is not yet cancelled. The house and land was purchased for $600; $500 have been paid by the citizens and Africans. The society have been highly favored in obtaining house at so reasonable a price, and in so good a location. But it now needs thorough repairs to preserve it from decay, and should at the same time be comfortably finished, they are induced to present their subscription paper at this time to the citizens in their behalf.

James ROSS, John WILLIAMS - Committee
New Haven, May 1, 1827

Death notice: Connecticut Herald.60

Died. On the 18th inst. Prince Duplex, a colored man, aged 36. Prince has been for many years known to travelers as a steward on board of one of the steamboats running between this city and New York. He was one of the most faithful, accommodating men that can any where be found in that employment. It is interfering with the rights of no white person to say that Prince was an accomplished gentleman. An old citizen states that Prince was a natural grandson of Prince Duplex Ferdinand, of Brunswick, a German Prince. The Prince spent some time in this city during the old French War, as it was called, and the African grandmother to the subject of this notice, then lived in a family in this town.

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John William CREED was born in 1801 in St. Croix, Virgin Islands,78 died on 18 May 1864 in New Haven, CT78 at age 63, and was buried in 1864 in Grove Street Cemetery, New Haven, CT.43 The cause of his death was inflammation of the bladder.


John William Creed arrived in New Haven about 1820. Some records suggest that he was born in St. Croix, Virgin Islands, but there are no sure facts concerning his early life. Within a year of coming to New Haven, he was accepted to membership in the First Congregational Church of New Haven (generally known as the Center Church on the Green). He gained employment as a Yale college janitor, served as steward for the Yale Calliopean Literary Society, and established a successful catering business that served meals for Yale graduation and alumni events.

On July 5, 1827, Creed joined a group in a march from the African Temple Street Church to celebrate the emancipation of slaves in neighboring New York. Reportedly, Creed, "a man of colour," gave a well received speech as had Cortlandt Van Rensselaer (Yale 1827) a day earlier at an Independence Day celebration. The two men were believed to share some bond. John Creed named his first son after the wealthy Van Rensselaer, who later served for several years as a preacher and missionary teacher among slaves in Virginia.

During the 1830's, Creed attended the anti-slavery meetings and conventions of Free People of Color in New York and Philadelphia as a representative from Connecticut. He was a New Haven agent of William Lloyd Garrison's paper, the Liberator.

On 14 Nov 1830, John Creed and Vashti Duplex were married by Reverend Leonard Bacon, a Yale College graduate, abolitionist, and pastor of the Center Church on the Green. Creed purchased a home on West Chapel Street in New Haven. He and Vashti had two sons, Cortlandt Van Rensselaer and John William Jr. Supported by prominent friends in the Yale community, Creed carefully nurtured Cortlandt's educational advancement. In 1857, Cortlandt graduated from the Medical Department of Yale College, the first of his race to receive any degree from Yale University. John Jr. continued the family catering and ice cream manufacturing business. John Creed's well-appointed home became the office for Cortlandt's medical practice.

John Creed died in 1864 and was buried in a family plot in the Grove Street Cemetery. He was survived by both sons and his wife. An eight-foot granite obelisk marks his gravesite near the entrance to the historic cemetery grounds.

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Edward Parker DUPLEX67,71,72,73,74 was born on 13 May 1831 in New Haven, CT and died on 5 Jan 1900 in Sacramento County, CA75 at age 68.


Edward Duplex was the oldest son of Prince Jr. and Adaline Duplex. His father died in 1832 leaving Adaline, a dress maker, to support the three Duplex children. Edward and his brother learned the barbering trade in New Haven before setting out with their mother to join the California gold rush in the early 1850's. The family developed a successful business enterprise of hair care service and products. Edward's establishment in Wheatland, Yuba County, California became a center of political and civic discourse. Edward played a prominent political role in northern California, serving as mayor of Wheatland, gateway of California's gold rush country. He married Sophia Elizabeth and had five children, two of whom survived beyond infancy. His life and accomplishments are described in several articles and books about African American pioneers of California.

From the web site: Historic Sites: Hairdressing and Shaving Saloon Wheatland, Yuba County.95

Edward Park Duplex, a Black man who would become Mayor of Wheatland [CA], opened a hairdressing and shaving saloon at 415 Main Street in 1875. Duplex had been a barber in Marysville for 20 years before moving to Wheatland.

Duplex's Hairdressing and Shaving Salon was located several doors from the Central Hotel in the heart of the business district, and was a locus of Wheatland's civic activity. Here, leaders exchanged information on matters facing the town's development while receiving tonsorial services. According to an advertisement in the Wheatland Free Press May 29, 1875, 'the shop paid particular attention to cutting ladies and misses hair, to honing and setting razors and Duplex's celebrated Eau Lustral Hair Restorative, together with a choice selection of oils and pomades, kept constantly on hand.'

Duplex was elected Mayor of Wheatland April 11, 1888 by the Board of Trustees, and may well have been the first Black person to hold such a high office in the western United States. By the time he occupied the mayor's office, Duplex had had more than one quarter of a century's experience as a businessman and civic leader. In 1855, he was the Yuba County representative at the first California Colored Citizens State Convention in Sacramento. At the 1856 convention, Duplex was once again a county representative, and served as a member of the convention's Executive Committee. On several occasions, Duplex was recorded in the Marysville City Council Minutes as a spokesman for Mt. Olivet Baptist Church.

In recognition of his stature, the Marysville Daily Appeal, January 8, 1900, described him 'as one of the best known Colored men in this northern part of the State.' Years later, Peter Delay, in the History of Yuba and Sutter Counties, named Duplex as 'a man who helped make Wheatland.'

On January 5, 1900, Edward P. Duplex died in Sacramento at the age of 69 after some 45 years in California. He was a native of Connecticut. The Hairdressing and Shaving Saloon, also known as George's Barber Shop, still stands in Wheatland. The structure has a front business section and rear living quarters. It appears that this building's exterior has remained the same as it was in 1875.

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Cortlandt Van Rensselaer CREED39,40,41,81,82 was born in Jan 1833 in New Haven, CT, died on 8 Aug 1900 in New Haven, CT83,84 at age 67, and was buried on 9 Aug 1900 in Grove Street Cemetery, New Haven, CT.43 The cause of his death was Bright's disease.99

• He was an a physician, Civil War surgeon, the first African American graduate of Yale Medical School (1857) and the first of his race to receive any degree from Yale University.


Born in April 1833, the first son of Vashti and John Creed was named after Cortlandt Van Rensselaer, scion of a wealthy and politically influential New York family. Van Rensselaer had graduated from Yale College in 1827 and was a missionary preacher to slaves in his early career as a Presbyterian minister.

Creed attended the New Haven Lancasterian School, an unusual accomplishment for an African American youth of his day. After graduation he apprenticed for two years with a respected New Haven physician, Dr. George Buddington. Encouraged by this positive experience, he applied and gained admission to Yale Medical College in 1854 at the age of twenty-one.

In 1855 while still pursuing medical studies, he wrote Frederick Douglass and declared his ambition to complete medical studies in order to practice in Jamaica or Liberia. His Yale medical school thesis was entitled "Dissertation On the Blood" - a discourse on the physiology and chemistry of blood and the circulation. In 1857 after passing oral examinations before members of the Connecticut State Medical Society, he graduated, receiving his Yale diploma from Theodore Dwight Woolsey, President of Yale and Charles Hooker, Dean of the Medical College. These influential men were thought to have been instrumental in Creed's advancement. Despite what Creed described in his letter to Douglass as a prevailing national sentiment of "prejudice against color," he reported, "I never experienced any other than the most polite treatment from my fellow class-mates."

When Dr. Creed graduated from Yale Medical College in 1857, no more than a handful of African Americans had previously received medical degrees from U.S. institutions, and none from the Ivy League schools.

Dr. Creed remained in New Haven after his graduation and developed a successful medical practice. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he wrote to Governor Buckingham of Connecticut requesting a commission to serve as surgeon in the Connecticut Volunteers but was refused because of his race. In 1863, President Lincoln authorized the recruitment of African Americans troops and the Connecticut governor issued the call to arms. Creed wrote, "On every side we behold colored sons rallying to the sound of Liberty and Union." He was appointed Assistant Surgeon of the 30th Connecticut Volunteer Infantry Regiment and served to the War's end. He was mustered out on November 7, 1865.

About 1854, Dr. Creed married Drucilla Wright of Wilmington, North Carolina, with whom he had four boys. Drucilla died from tuberculosis in 1864, after which Dr. Creed began his military service. After the War's end, he married Mary A. Paul of Brooklyn, New York with whom he had six children. He briefly practiced in New York but returned to New Haven where he remained for the rest of his career. In addition to his medical practice, he served as Justice of the Peace during the 1870's. Cited frequently in local news and the New York Times for his surgical and forensic skills, he was consulted for a surgical opinion at the time of President's Garfield's assassination. He was active in the Connecticut National Guard. On December 20, 1879 he received a commission as a 1st Lieutenant and Assistant Surgeon in the Fifth Battalion of the Guard. He was admitted to the Connecticut Medical Society in 1885.

In the final decade of his life, his health and personal fortunes declined. He died from "Bright's disease" (glomerulonephritis) on August 8th, 1900. He was survived by his second wife, three sons and three daughters. He was laid to rest next to his father, mother and brother in the family burial plot in Grove Street Cemetery, New Haven.100,101

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• Corresponds with Frederick Douglass (published in Federick Douglass' Paper).102

August 6, 1855
New Haven, Conn.

Frederick Douglass, Esq.:
Dear Sir:
Thinking that a letter from the "Elm City" might prove itself interesting to you, I have embraced the present opportunity of giving you a brief account of this in general in our beautiful urbs. I had the pleasure of meeting you, sir, while ion a visit to my uncle's (Mr. George Duplex) at Danby, N.Y., during the fall of '52. At that time you addressed the citizens of the above place, at the Town Hall. I also met you again in Ithaca. Since that time, I have, through the columns of your paper, gained the general news of the day, and kept watch of your own movements.

It will, perhaps, be interesting for you to know, sir, that upon returning home, Instantly made arrangements for prosecuting the study of medicine. I had my fears and doubts as to whether I would be admitted at "Yale." Knowing that prejudice against color was somewhat apparent, in time past, I, however, felt nerved for a trial; knowing, too, that I ever had received, at the "Academical Schools and Seminaries" which I attended in my younger days, every marked attention, both from instructors and students, I felt encouraged to make a commencement. Accordingly, I entered the office of George E. Budington, MD, of this city, a distinguished surgeon, physician and scholar. December 18th, 1853, as an "office student," applying myself closely to my studies, I was not long in unraveling the delicate network which surround the study of medicine. By degrees, the doctor generally would send me to look after his patients, until at last he seldom operated without my assistance or presence.

On the 14th day of last September, I applied and was admitted into the "medical class" of the "Yale Medical University." During the past winter, I dissected largely, in common with my class-mates; and both in college and out of its walls, the truth compels me to say, that I never experienced any other than the most polite treatment form my fellow class-mates. The required time of study is three years, also attendance upon the lectures, three years. You are then examined privately "by the Medical board," after which the graduation exercises take place. As I am a member of the class of '56, I shall graduate, if I live in that year. As to practice, after that I receive my sheepskin. I rather think of spending a year or more in Europe, and shall settle down in practice either in Jamaica or Liberia. It I now vacation with us, which makes the city appears quite dull. Commencement at Yale is over and ninety young men have gone forth to commence the battle of life. The attendance was as usual quite large, and the annual "Commencement Exercise" were very good. The "valedictory address" was very brilliant and intellectual; it was delivered by John E. Hodd, of Pittsfield, Massachusetts. . .

Very respectfully yours,
C. Van Rensselaer Creed

• Connecticut War Record newspaper, Jun 1964.103

The Thirtieth Infantry
We have been furnished by the former excellent Post Chaplain, with a sketch of this regiment.

. . .Here we would not fail to notice the valuable services rendered the regiment by Dr. C. V. R. Creed of New Haven. He has held the position of Acting Assistant Surgeon in the regiment. The sanitary condition of the men was remarkably good under his careful treatment. We sincerely hope the Dr. will be made head Surgeon of this fine regiment, a position for which he is well qualified and to which he is entertained. Dr. C. universally respected and beloved by the men for his courtesy and unwearied interest in their welfare. He was commissioned by Gov. Andrews as Assistant Surgeon of the Massachusetts 55th Regiment, (colored) but the death of his wife soon after he accepted the appointment, rendered it necessary that he should resign in order to care for his family.

• His obituary was published in the Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University, 1900-1910.84

Courtland Van Rensselaer Creed, son of John William and Vashti Elizabeth (Duplex) Creed, was born April, 1935, in New Haven, Conn. Part of his early education was obtained in the Lancasterian School of New Haven. His father was a college janitor, steward of the Calliopean Society, and provided the Commencement dinner for Yale alumni from about 1822 to 1865.

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Louisa G DUPLEX73,96 was born in Sep 1867 in Marysville, Yuba County, CA, died on 20 Oct 1902 in Sacramento, CA98 at age 35, and was buried on 22 Oct 1902 in Marysville City Cemetery, CA.65

• Her obituary was published.123

Marysville Daily Appeal - 10/21/1902, p6 - Former Resident Dead - Miss Louisa Duplex Passed Away in Sacramento Yesterday Morning - Miss Louisa Duplex, a former resident of Marysville, died at her home in Sacramento yesterday, and her remains will arrive here on this evening's train for interment in the City Cemetery. - The deceased was the daughter of E. P. Duplex, the well-known colored barber, who resided in Wheatland for a number of years, and who was so much respected in that community that he was elected Chairman of the town Trustees. The old gentleman died in Sacramento about two years ago and was buried in the City Cemetery here. Edward Duplex, a brother of the deceased, worked in this city at the same trade as his father for several years. - Miss Duplex was a native of Marysville and about 30 years of age. - The remains will be taken from the depot to the cemetery on their arrival by Undertaker Kelly.

Marysville Daily Appeal - 10/22/1902, p1 - Funeral This Afternoon - The remains of Miss Louisa Duplex arrived from Sacramento last evening, and were taken in charge by Undertaker J. K. Kelly. - The funeral service will be held at 2 o'clock this afternoon at Mt. Olivet Baptist Church, and the interment will be made in the City Cemetery.

Marysville Daily Appeal - 10/23/1902, p1 - Miss Duplex Buried - Funeral of Well-Known Former Resident Largely Attended Yesterday - The funeral of the late Miss Louisa Duplex, who died in Sacramento, and who was a former resident of this city, took place yesterday afternoon, and was well attended. - The services were held at Mt. Olivet Baptist church, where Rev. W. M. Woodward, pastor of the M. E. Church, officiated, as he did at the City Cemetery, where the interment took place. - The following friends of the deceased acted as pall-bearers: D. M. Harris, B. E. Robinson, Phil Churchill, C. E. Pogue, Geo. W. Wilson and A. B. Davis.

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Edward Parker Duplex CREED41,113 was born in 1861 in New Haven, CT, died in May 1900 in New Haven, CT at age 39, and was buried on 13 May 1900 in Grove Street Cemetery, New Haven, CT.43 The cause of his death was consumption.

• His obituary was published in the New Haven Evening Register.152

The funeral services of this young man were large attended yesterday afternoon from his brother's residence, 105 Judson Avenue. The Rev. Mr. Mossman officiated and spoke very feelingly of the deceased, whose end was blissful and consoling to his relatives, who are left behind. Many beautiful floral tokens were sent by friends. His brother, Cortlandt Jr., contributed a very beautiful harp made of the choicest flowers, with the word "Brother" intertwined among the strings, while from New York came a profusion of cut flowers, the last tribute of affection from his eldest brother, Mr. George D. Creed, the popular steward of New York's most aristocratic club. Those present from out of the city were Mr. and Mrs. Geo. D. Creed, Miss Eugenie I. Creed, Mr. Robert L. Creed, lately returned from the Cuban War; Mr James D. Thomas of New York, and his father, Dr. C. Van R. Creed of this city. The interment was in the family plot in Grove Street cemetery.

• His obituary was published in New Haven, CT.153

Edward Parker Creed, a much respected colored citizen of this city, died at the residence of his brother, Cortlandt Creed, 105 Judson street, yesterday afternoon. Mr. Creed was forty years of age and had been a sufferer for a long period with consumption. He leaves a father, three brothers and three sisters. His father is Dr. Creed of this city. His three sisters and two of his brothers reside in New York.

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Jacqueleine Hylda CREED129,175 was born on 3 Aug 1928 in Keyport, NJ and died on 9 Apr 2001 in Plattsburgh, NY at age 72.

• Her obituary was published in the Press-Republican (Plattsburgh NY).175

A lifelong fighter of the good fight, Jacqueleine Creed Archer, died of complications from her long battle with multiple sclerosis at 5:20 p.m., Monday, in the Glens Falls Hospital. She was 72. She and her former husband, Lloyd Archer, moved to Plattsburgh with their daughters, Taryn Michelle and Tracey Nadine in 1962.

Archer's North Country legacy includes founding the Martin Luther King Jr. Commission of Clinton County, president of the Citizen's Council on Alcoholism and director of the Champlain Valley Hospital unit of Alcoholism Information and Referral Center. She retired in 1982 due to her private battle with multiple sclerosis, which confined her to a wheelchair, but did not prevent her from presenting programs on alcohol and drug abuse in area schools.

"I have known her as long as I've been in Plattsburgh," said Frank Jackson, former commission chairperson and friend of the late Archer. "She was the leader, the founder, the person we all looked up to. Her legacy to this community is unbelievable - the things she's been involved with and how the community has grown since she got involved."

Archer was born on Aug. 3, 1928, the youngest of seven [nine] children of George and Hylda Creed in Keyport, N.J. She attended Keyport High School, where she was the first black cheerleader and played softball, field hockey and basketball. She was inducted into the Keyport High School Hall of Fame in October 1998. She graduated in 1950 from Spelman College in Atlanta, where she majored in social science with a minor in psychology and history.

Besides her parents, her role models included the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, the Rev. Jesse Jackson, Secretary of State Colin Powell, and her Civil War-surgeon and Yale graduate great-grandfather Cortland VanRensselaer Creed.

Archer had a very soft-speaking way and a forceful personality, according to Helen Booth. Booth worked on a committee with Archer many years ago during the beginnings of the North Country Center for Independence. "She drove to Albany with me," Booth said. " She was a very nice person. She was quite delightful to work with. I've known her a long time."

Archer was a trailblazer and woman of many firsts. She was the first African-American female college graduate in Keyport. She was the first African-American hired as a social worker, who went into black and white homes in Red Bank, N.J. She was also a charter member of the Monmouth County New Jersey Business and Professional Women's Council and a home-service worker for the American Red Cross. In Plattsburgh, she was a charter member of the Area League of Women Voters, the Coalition for Independence and Dignity, the Clinton County Area Multiple Sclerosis Chapter, the Mental Health Association and the Clinton County Affirmative Action Board.

By the time she retired, she had spoken in every school, church and synagogue in Clinton County. She was a member of the First Baptist Church in Plattsburgh. "She was a very faithful and dedicated woman to her faith, her Lord, her family and her community." said the Rev. Gerald Bentley of First Baptist Church. "She was a woman of very strong convictions based on her faith and that made her a very strong leader and one people could look up to as one to be admired and as an example," Bentley said. "Everyone in the church and community will miss her and will always carry the memory and impact she made in their lives."

Archer's Ashley Road residence contains volumes of photo albums filled with press clippings, photographs and letters from students, local residents and the famous, including Nelson Rockefeller, Pulitzer-Prize winning poet Gwendolyn Brooks, Robert F. Kennedy and Muhammad Ali. "She was a very organized person," said Monica Springer, her longtime caretaker.

Archer joined the Plattsburgh Branch of the NAACP in 1963. As chairperson of membership and fundraising, she was cited nationally for her outstanding efforts and elected branch president in 1965. She served for three years. She helped file more than 50 complaints of racial discrimination in Clinton County. She filed one herself and won against a white hairdresser who refused to cut her hair. "She was the leader and heart and soul of the Civil Rights Movement in the North Country," said activist Harold Brohinsky. "She was my friend and one of the finest people I ever knew." Her honors include certificates of appreciation from the Plattsburgh Police Department and Clinton County Correctional Facility.

She was Jesse Jackson's sole delegate for the 26th Congressional District for the Democratic National Convention in Atlanta in 1988. She was selected as an "African-American of Distinction" by former Gov. Mario Cuomo. City of Plattsburgh Mayor Daniel Stewart enjoyed talking with Archer whenever he could. "She was a champion of many causes, and she'll be very missed. She was a good person to talk to about any issue, and she cared about people. It was amazing what she did. She was a great role model for other people."

Following cremation, there will be two memorial celebrations in Archer's honor. Arrangements are incomplete at this time. -- Robin Caudell, Staff Writer

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Andrew Irving REMATORE138,139 was born on 19 Oct 1924 in New Haven, CT, died on 3 Mar 2005 in San Jose, CA194,195 at age 80, and was buried on 10 Mar 2005 in San Joaquin Valley National Cemetery, Gustine, Merced County, CA.196 The cause of his death was leukemia.

• His obituary was published in the San Jose Mercury News (CA).195

Andrew Irving Rematore's father, a Connecticut banker, wore a boutonniere -- a red rose -- every workday. When he grew up, the son spent as much time as he could each weekend working in his San Jose garden perfecting 21 rose bushes. They were his lasting tribute to his parent and role model. "He used to tell us his father was the brightest person he ever knew," said Mr. Rematore's daughter, Laurel. But to four decades of students at Santa Clara University, Mr. Rematore was the brilliant one, the Spanish and linguistics professor who started SCU's language lab, the teacher many of them called a "Renaissance man" because he knew and could expound seemingly on any given topic.

Mr. Rematore died at 80 on March 3 of leukemia complicated by heart problems he'd suffered from for more than 20 years. He taught his last class Feb. 28, four days before his death. "He was miserable if he had to stay home," said Irene, his wife of 51 years. "He read a lot but he wanted to 'do' something." At his funeral, another SCU Spanish professor, Rose Marie Beebe, read tributes from former students such as Bill VanPatten, an internationally known leader in the field of contemporary Spanish applied linguistics, who credited Mr. Rematore's classes and advice for launching his career. Skilled in five languages, Mr. Rematore courted his wife in his favorite, Spanish. At the dinner table, his daughter said, if her father and mother wanted to say something private, they used Spanish. But that ended the evening their oldest daughter, Andrea, joined the conversation with a comment in Spanish, which she had been studying in school.

The youngest of five children and a World War II Army veteran who fought at Normandy, Mr. Rematore came to Santa Clara County in the late 1950s when he was awarded a grant to study for his doctorate at Stanford University, where he also taught. He moved the family back to Fort Hays State College in Kansas, his first teaching position, when he finished his Stanford courses and was awarded a full professorship. While teaching in Kansas and later at SCU, he worked on his dissertation and received his doctorate from Stanford in Spanish and Latin American literature in 1968. The family 40 years ago settled in the San Jose home where Mr. Rematore lived the rest of his life. He joined the Santa Clara staff and continued to teach upper division Spanish literature and linguistics until his death.

A student-friendly teacher -- but a tough grader -- he enjoyed opera and plays and indulged a sense of humor that had him sending his wife and daughters tacky greeting cards for every holiday on the calendar. The linguist in him cracked up at the cockney accents of "The EastEnders" series on public television, and he was a soft-hearted father who let his youngest child, Laurel, sit up late at age 10 to watch the original "Star Trek" TV series. Determined to be the best at what he did, Mr. Rematore would "repeat his lectures to me in the early years while I was stirring the gravy," said his wife, a retired teacher. That habit lasted about five years. But for the versatile professor, reading and tending roses in memory of his father were hobbies that lasted a lifetime.

Andrew Irving Rematore - Born: Oct. 19, 1924, in New Haven, Conn. Died: March 3, 2005, in San Jose. Survived by: His wife, Irene Rematore of San Jose; children, Andrea Rematore of San Jose and Laurel Rematore of Mariposa; daughter-in-law, Janis Catherine of San Jose; and several cousins and nephews. Services: Have been held. Memorial: Donations may be made in Mr. Rematore's name to a scholarship fund at the Santa Clara University Department of Modern Languages and Literatures, Santa Clara University, 500 El Camino Real, Santa Clara, Calif. 95053-0300. -- Betty Barnacle, Mercury News

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