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French's Gazeteer of 1860
From Gazeteer of the State of New York by J.H. French 1860
Caroline-was formed from Spencer, (Tioga co.,) Feb. 22, 1811, and was transferred to this co March 22, 1822. A part was annexed to Danby in 1839. It is the S.E. corner town of the co. Its surface is an upland, broken by a series of ridges extending N.W. and S.E. 500 to 700 ft. above the valleys and 1,500 to 1,700 ft. above tide. The summits of the hills are usually rounded and rolling and their declivities steep. The streams are Owego Creek, forming the E. boundary, and Six Mile Creek and their branches. These streams flow in deep narrow valleys bordered by steep hillsides. The soil is generally a gravelly loam, and is well adapted to grazing. Caroline Center (p.v.) contains 2 churches and 14 houses; Motts Corners, (p.v.) on Six Mile Creek, in the N.W. corner of the town, 1 church, several manufacturing establishments,1 and 40 houses; Speedsville, (p.v.,) upon Boyer Creek, in the S.E. corner, contains 3 churches and 30 houses; and Slaterville, (p.v.,) near the N. border, 1 church and 30 houses. Pugsleys Depot (p.o.) is a station on the C. & S. R. R. Caroline (p.o.) is a hamlet in the N.E. corner of the town. Rawson Hollow, on the E. line, is a p.o. The first settlement was begun by Capt. David Rich, who came from Vt. in 1795 and located near Willow Bridge; Widow Earsley, with four sons and four daughters, from N.J., came in the next year; and for several years these were the only families in town.2 The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) was formed at an early period; the first pastor was Rev. Garritt Mandeville. The census reports 10 churches in town.3
1Two flouring mills, two sawmills, a tannery, and woolen factory. One mile below the village is the extensive gun barrel manufactor of J. & B. Losey, and, with one exception, the only one in the State. This establishment was started 50 years ago, by Abiel Losey, father of the present proprietors, at Otsego: thence it was removed to Fall Creek, near Ithaca; thence to Owego; and thence to its present location.
2Among the other early settlers were Thos. Tracy and Sam'l Yates, from Mass.; Joseph Chambers, Richard Bush, and Hartmore Earnest, from Ulster co., in 1798; Levi Slater, (formerly of Slaterville,) Charles and John Mulks, John Cantine, (first settler at Motts Corners,) and Joseph Bishop, all from Ulster, and John Rounceville, from Mass., in 1801. The first child born was Harriet Rounceville. The first school was taught by John Robinson. Richard Bush kept the first inn, Isaac Miller the first store, and Gen. Cantine built the first gristmill, in 1800.
34 M.E., Prot. E., Cong., Bap., Ref. Prot. D., F.W. Bap., and Univ.
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